This site was built using the UW Theme | Privacy Notice | © 2020 Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System. Note surprises and unfamiliar words. The most natural approach is to pay strict attention to the grammar and punctuation. It is not necessary to give any of these poems a dramatic reading as if from a stage. Read the poem straight through without stopping to analyze it (aloud, if possible). We have to give up our material attitude, which makes us want to possess the poem. Turn on a single lamp and read them while you're alone in an otherwise dark room or while someone else sleeps next to you. Reading poetry works the same way, and, fortunately, poets leave trails to help you look for the way "up" a poem. You’ll have to do some work, hard work in some cases, but most of the time, the trails are there for you to discover. Circle important, or striking, or repeated words. There are several different types of poems, but all poems fall into three … At the end of class, at the end of the day, we want revelation, a glimpse of the skyline through the lifting fog. Williams admits in these lines that poetry is often difficult. They make the inquiry their own. Titles often provide important clues about … Poems speak to us in many ways. The type of poem it is will give you huge clues to what it’s doing. 2. What if my friends hear me? © Academy of American Poets, 75 Maiden Lane, Suite 901, New York, NY 10038, "The Red Wheelbarrow" by William Carlos Williams. The discussion should remain grounded in the text as much as possible. Does the poem speak from a specific culture? Beat poet Allen Ginsbergdid this a lot with his poetry. The third is assuming that the poem can mean anything readers want it to mean. But such a task is to some degree impossible, and most people want clarity. Don’t gloss over them. The use and relationship of the three main metaphors in the poem 3. When you read out loud, particularly if you're reading in … Emotions? The first step is to hear what’s going on. But sooner or later, you’re going to have to read the poem, word by word. The second is assuming that the poem is a kind of code, that each detail corresponds to one, and only one, thing, and unless they can crack this code, they’ve missed the point. Consider this situation, a true story, of a poet who found a "text" at the San Mateo coast in northern California. But a poem that reveals itself completely in one or two readings will, over time, seem less of a poem than one that constantly reveals subtle recesses and previously unrecognized meanings. Read a poem with a pencil in your hand. We have to cultivate a new mindset, a new practice of enjoying the inconclusive. Imagery. Poems generally convey a narrative, or describe feelings or objects. We mentioned earlier that encountering a difficult poem is like a game or sport, say rock climbing, that makes you work a bit. Read these poems to yourself in the middle of the night. Is there a cluster of sounds that seem the same or similar? Imagery is a literary device that’s a tangible description that appeals to one of the five … We’ll now bring inquiry to bear on two very different poems, each of which presents its own challenges: Some people say that a poem is always an independent work of art and that readers can make full sense of it without having to use any source outside the poem itself. For further information you may wish to take the Writing Center workshop entitled Intro to Literary Analysis. For me, good poems, ones that I like to read over and over, can bring delight in many ways. What does it say? And so difficult poetry is the ultimate torment. It can also be used to set the scene if a poem is set in a particular time or place. I’ve collected my notes from my Literature classes, every poem we’ve ever read, and started reading it again. There is, of course, more than one answer to this question. Reading poetry well is part attitude and part technique. These id… If the occasion is emotional for example, the poem is part of eulogy, wedding or retirement speech, print it out in a large clear font so it is easily read. From its earliest forms to the poems being written today, poetry has kept its close alliance with speaking and singing. So it is with great poetry. To begin, read the poem aloud. Maybe in school, someone says there's only one way to read a poem… and that way feels like a secret code, with technical terms or critique that turn the poem into a … In that case, the punctuation and the lineation, and perhaps even breathing, coincide to make the reading familiar and even predictable. We wish the poem to be object so we can possess it through our "seeing" its internal workings. But why here, in nature, in beauty, so far from that political arena. Read the poem again, this time aloud. The relationship between meaning, sound, and movement intended by the poet is sometimes hard to recognize, but there is an interplay between the grammar of a line, the breath of a line, and the way lines are broken out in the poem—this is called lineation. All of these are good qualities to notice, and they may lead you to a better understanding of the poem in the end. Most readers make three false assumptions when addressing an unfamiliar poem. People chanted it, sang it, recited it — and they still do. Ask even some excellent players to improvise and they start to sweat. Overlapping and layering might be the poet’s intent, which no single voice can achieve. This is an accordion element with a series of buttons that open and close related content panels. How to Read a Poem Poems can be read many ways. Look at the language, style, diction, punctuation, author’s intent, historical context and more to decipher what the poem means. Here’s a useful analogy. Read them when you're wide awake in the early morning, fully alert. Treat a poem like dirt, humus rich and heavy from the garden. The issue is our reaction, how we shape our thoughts through words. His halting, hesitant, breathless style is immediately recognizable, and it presents writers with new ideas about meaning, purely through lineation. Consider these lines from Creeley’s poem "The Language": Reading the lines as written, as opposed to their grammatical relationship, yields some strange meanings. Nothing scares some people like the idea (even the idea) of improvisation as a writing or analytical tool. The amount of information needed to clearly understand depends on you and your encounter with the poem. For what good is it to me     if you can't understand it? But I know I have to do something. Asking questions about the observable features of a poem will help you find a way in. "I beg your pardon," she said. Reading Clearly and Effectively Slow down. Read through the poem several times, both silently and aloud, listening carefully to the sound and rhythm of the words. Playing or listening to a song for the hundredth time—if it is a great song—will yield new interpretation and discovery. How to Read Poetry: The Process. Aesthetically, this is understandable. If the poem is a question, what is the answer? Forcing yourself to read all of them will leave you with a much deeper appreciation and … The techniques of word and line arrangement, sound and rhythm, add to—and in some cases, multiply—the meaning of words to go beyond the literal, giving you an impression of an idea or feeling, an experience that you can’t quite put into words but that you know is real. Step 2: Identify the Title Hints of the Poem. This approach is one of many ways into a poem. An Overview of the Writing Center for Instructors, Help Your Students Use the Writing Center Effectively, National Novel Writing Month & Academic Writing Month, Before you begin: useful tips for writing your essay, What is your initial impression of the poem’s, Because a poem is highly compressed, it may help you to try to unfold it by. What to do as a reader? • This will help you get a sense of how it sounds, how it works, what it might be about. So how do we get closer to it? Torment, powerlessness—these are the desired ends? 1. Before you get very far with a poem, you have to read it. The most magical and wonderful poems are ever renewing themselves, which is to say they remain ever mysterious. To ask some of these questions, you’ll need to develop a good ear for the musical qualities of language, particularly how sound and rhythm relate to meaning. Some poets think of their words as music flowing from a horn; they think of phrases the way a saxophonist might. The basis for shared inquiry is close reading. The first is assuming that they should understand what they encounter on the first reading, and if they don’t, that something is wrong with them or with the poem. In "shaped poetry," as well as many other types of writing that are meant to be seen as a painting might be seen, the line is determined by its placement in space. That is excellent advice. Some actors hate being without a script; the same is true of some musicians. There it would be seen and would shout its protest from the very foundations of the oppressive system. Reason? For some poems, visual impact may also be important. Use the guidelines below to learn how to read a poem and understand it. You can also see whether it looks like the last poem you read by the same poet or even a poem by another poet. Visual choices presented by the poet may be confusing. She sat down and wrote a poem. Where could I possibly go to read aloud? Does the poem spring from an identifiable historical moment? In fact, it’s often best to approach a poem without the kind of preconceived ideas that can accompany this kind of information. But lines that are not end-stopped present different challenges for readers because they either end with an incomplete phrase or sentence or they break before the first punctuation mark is reached. A Short Guide to Close Reading for Literary Analysis, Writing a Rhetorical Précis to Analyze Nonfiction Texts, Planning and Writing a Grant Proposal: The Basics, Additional Resources for Grants and Proposal Writing, Writing Personal Statements for Ph.D. Programs, Writing an Abstract for Your Research Paper, Advice for Students Writing Thank-You Notes to Donors, Writing for Social Media: A Guide for Academics. Ever. Treat line endings with care, pausing briefly […] What determines where a line stops in poetry? A poem might start as a snippet of a verse, a line or two that seems to come out of nowhere, or an image you cannot get out of your head. Identify the Type of Poem. It does depend one which poem and sometimes even which poet. Despite the routine, the drone of familiarity, the daily preparation of meals and doing of dishes, the conversations we’ve had before, we hope to find a sense of discovery, of surprise. Poets design their poems to be read aloud. Hearing Creeley read his poems can often be disquieting, because he pauses at the end of each line, and these pauses create a kind of tension or counterpoint in relation to the poem’s sentence structure. Try these tips for reading poetry out loud: Read silently first. "Locate I" seems to indicate a search for identity, and indeed it may, but the next line, which continues with "love you some-," seems to make a diminishing statement about a relationship. The author does an excellent job of really answering HOW a poem means and not WHAT a poem means. Read the poem at least twice. Reading to the end of a phrase or sentence, even if it carries over one or several lines, is the best way to retain the grammatical sense of a poem. Poems contain subtle and meaningful acoustic devices and rhythms that are tied to the meaning of poetry, and it's much easier to pick up on these devices when the poem is heard or read out loud. Does the poem use unusual words or use words in an unusual way. However, the truth lies somewhere in between. This act of completion begins when you enter the imaginative play of a poem, bringing to it your experience and point of view. When the verse holds some message and meaning to a performer then it can be read … In the absence of such a list, here are a few general questions that you might ask when approaching a poem for the first time: You can fall back on these questions as needed, but experience suggests that since each poem is unique, such questions will not go the necessary distance. Curiosity is a useful attitude, especially when it’s free of preconceived ideas about what poetry is or should be. Do you notice any special effects? Poems composed in this way have varied line lengths but they have a musicality in their lineation and a naturalness to their performance. Other poems, however, overtly political poems in particular, will benefit from some knowledge of the poet’s life and times. Read in a normal, relaxed tone of voice. Wit, word-play, unexpectedness of word and thought, depth of feeling, word-music, vivid images, the shape of the poem on the page, all bring me joy. her poem asked. Don’t rush. Responses that move away from what is written into personal anecdotes or tangential leaps should be gently urged back into analyzing the text. It’s possible, of course, even for someone with a deep background in poetry to be unaware of certain associations or implications in a poem. How poetry helps kids learn to read Poetry has always been a powerful medium for the world of children’s literature. But poems do offer clues about where to start. Listen to the poem line by line, word by word. Some literary critics would link this as well to the power of seeing, to the relationship between subject and object. Mark difficult or confusing words, lines, and passages. As you read through the poem make a note of any strong images that the words describe or convey. Others say that no text exists in a vacuum. Couldn’t you leave the coast unspoiled? Do any of the words rhyme? Some visually oriented poets present real challenges in that the course of the poem may not be entirely clear. I understand, she wrote, why someone would write La Raza on the side of a building, or on public transport. It can give you a clue about the poem. The observations and questions in the close reading notes are by no means complete, but a look over them suggests several possibilities for a paper. Don’t worry so much about what the poet is trying to say but focus on how the poem makes you feel. What changes as a result? A poem cannot be read too slowly, and a good way for a reader to set an easy pace is to pause for a few seconds between the title and the poem's first line. The following steps describe one approach. But lineation introduces another variable that some poets use to their advantage. As she scrambled over rocks behind the beach, near the artichoke fields that separate the shore from the coast highway, she found a large smear of graffiti painted on the rocks, proclaiming "La Raza," a Chicano political slogan meaning "the struggle." Then, one evening while reading the poem in Berkeley she got her answer. If it doesn't, move on. I wanted to write a poem     that you would understand. Some of this attitude comes from the misconception that we should understand a poem after we first read it, while some stems from sheer embarrassment. Title. Think about the title and how it relates to the poem. It would be convenient if there were a short list of universal questions, ones that could be used anytime with any poem. Reading poetry is a challenge, but like so many other things, it takes practice, and your skills and insight improve as you progress. I read poetry for the feels. The title may give you some image or association to start with. Too often we resist ambiguity. A life partner, a husband, a wife—these are people with whom we hope to constantly renew our love. Read the words. Once you have inspiration, you can then shape and mould your thoughts into a poem. Just read it and let it flow over you. Why? Unpack what the poem is about. Mark difficult or confusing words, lines, and passages. The best way to discover and learn about a poem is through shared inquiry discussion. What if the lines are irregular? But many poets who break lines disregarding grammatical units do so only for visual irony, something that may be lost in performance. Read through the poem several times, both silently and aloud, listening carefully to the sound and rhythm of the words. Most poems are open to interpretation without the aid of historical context or knowledge about the author’s life. I try to consider and feel all of the many things the poem has made me notice, and to let those things—the effects of the poem—mingle a while. Is sound an important, active element of the poem? Although your first experience of the poem may be private and personal, talking about the poem is a natural and important next step. A poem is not a puzzle to be solved. Published in partnership with the Great Books Foundation. Read the poem out loud. You may enjoy an easy climb for a while, but you may also find that you want a bigger challenge. Is there a section of the poem that seems to have a rhythm that’s distinct from the rest of the poem? William Carlos Williams wrote a verse addressed to his wife in the poem "January Morning,": All this—                           was for you, old woman. One way to see the action in a poem is to list all its. If a poem is "play" in the sense of a game or a sport, then you enjoy that it makes you work a little, that it makes you sweat a bit. You may find images appearing in your mind's eye that are only indirectly related to … Titles are important. Understanding what a poem means is critical for understanding how to read it aloud. 3. What circumstances gave rise to the poem? Curiosity is a useful attitude, especially when it’s free of preconceived ideas about what poetry is or should be. You should also look at the title of the poem. Do not assume meanings hidden from you: the best poems mean what they say and say it. Reading a poem several ways allows you to see further into the poem simply through repetition. If the poem is an answer, what is the question? The best poetry has a magical quality—a sense of being more than the sum of its parts—and even when it’s impossible to articulate this sense, this something more, the power of the poem is left undiminished. Beginning with a focus question about the poem, the discussion addresses various possible answers to the question, reshaping and clarifying it along the way. Sometimes the job of the poem is to come closer to saying what cannot be said in other forms of writing, to suggest an experience, idea, or feeling that you can know but not entirely express in any direct or literal way. Sometimes the arrangements of words on a page are intended to represent different voices in a dialogue, or even a more complex discourse on a subject. Among these possibilities are: 1. That said, it can still be uncomfortable to read aloud or to make more than one pass through a poem. What is its purpose. The repetition of similar words and phrases in the poem 2. That the experience of poetry, the meaning in poetry is a kind of circuit that takes place between a poet, a poem and a reader and that meaning doesn’t exist or in here in poems alone. Well, no. But what if the lines aren’t metrical? Lines are often determined by meaning, sound and rhythm, breath, or typography. Robert Creeley is perhaps best known for breaking lines across expected grammatical pauses. Literature is, and has always been, the sharing of experience, the pooling of human understanding about living, loving, and dying. … The earliest poetry was oral. But if the results seem to detract from the poem’s impact, in terms of its imagery or concept, drop the literal treatment of line breaks and read for grammar or visual image. You can find inspiration for your poem by doing writing exercises and using the world around you. Good readers "dirty the text" with notes in the margins. What kind of poem is it? Maybe we’ve bought the book but we don’t own the poem. with mother finally *****, and the last fantastic book flung out of the tenement window, and the last door closed at 4 A.M. and the last telephone slammed at the wall in reply and the last furnished room emptied down to the last piece of mental furniture, a yellow paper rose twisted on a wire hanger in the closet, and even that imaginary, nothing but a hopeful little bit of hallucination— This technique often introduces secondary meaning, sometimes in ironic contrast with the actual meaning of the complete grammatical phrase. They may have a recognizable sense of measure, an equivalent duration between lines, or, for the sake of contrast, one rhythmic pattern or duration that gives way to successive variations. There may be no identifiable occasion that inspired the poem. Feedback, questions or accessibility issues: wcenter@writing.wisc.edu. On its own, "eyes bite" is very disturbing. The connection between the physical and the spiritual. For example, lines that end with punctuation, called end-stopped lines, are fairly simple. Playing the same character night after night, an actor discovers something in the lines, some empathy for the character, that he or she had never felt before. The same is true of poems. Mark it up; write in the margins; react to it; get involved with it. The point, after all, is that text is mysterious. Choose a poem. Draw lines to connect related ideas. Embracing ambiguity is a much harder task for some than for others. Effective technique directs your curiosity into asking questions, drawing you into a conversation with the poem. What kind of figurative language, if any, does the poem use? Scanning the … U se the natural pauses in the poem to take a breath, for example on a comma, full stop or period. Remember that the use of these techniques, in any combination, pushes the words of the poem beyond their literal meanings. Poetry is often written for the ear, so you should start by reading the poem out loud as it will help you listen to the poem more closely. The text was not out of place. The goal of careful reading is often to take up a question of meaning, an interpretive question that has more than one answer. Follow the music. Though their forms may not always be direct or narrative, keep in mind that a real person formed the moment of the poem, and it’s wise to seek an understanding of that moment. Read that way, too, on a literal level first. Draw lines to connect related ideas. Effective technique directs your curiosity into asking questions, drawing you into a conversation with the poem. Look at the poem’s title: What might this poem be about? Establish a positive, conversational tone. Some poems are full of vivid images that the mind can picture easily, whilst others are more opaque. Successful poems welcome you in, revealing ideas that may not have been foremost in the writer’s mind in the moment of composition. Haiku meditate on an aspect of nature. Since the form of a poem is part of its meaning (for example, features such as repetition and rhyme may amplify or extend the meaning of a word or idea, adding emphasis, texture, or dimension), questions about form and technique, about the observable features of a poem, provide an effective point of entry for interpretation. Listen to your voice, to the sounds the words make. As you read, jot down your first impressions, reactions, memories, personal experiences tied to it. If you find more in a poem than the words alone convey, then something larger is at work, making the poem more than the sum of its parts. Read it more than once. With poets who use techniques drawn from music—particularly jazz, such as Michael S. Harper or Yusef Komunyakaa—or poets like Walt Whitman who employ unusually long lines, there may be another guiding principle: breath. Does the poem use imagery to achieve a particular effect? In fact, you can learn quite a few things just by looking at it. Poems are designed to be read aloud — you’ll get a better experience and understanding of the whole poem. Circle important, or striking, or repeated words. What questions does it raise? Here’s a tricky issue: the task is to grasp, to connect, to understand. To read poetry requires only courage enough to leap from the edge and trust. Not only does he do a great job of explaining poetics, he also fills the book with many great poems. Where does the transformation, turn or “discovery” take place in this poem? Looking at the poem’s shape, you can see whether the lines are continuous or broken into groups (called stanzas), or how long the lines are, and so how dense, on a physical level, the poem is. He also suggests that a poet depends on the effort of a reader; somehow, a reader must "complete" what the poet has begun. but you got to try hard—. Pause for emphasis. When it won’t allow us to "objectify" it, we feel powerless. My hunch is that the act of reading poetry is where many folks get stopped. The ambiguity, which begins (“let” suggests that something may or may not be allowed to happen) and ends (the weighty word “if”) the poem 4. If it speaks to you, that's great. In many instances, knowing who the speaker is may not yield any useful information. Mark it up; write in the margins; react to it; get involved with it. For example, sonnets often talk about love. Later on it will become the fat tomatoes and golden squash piled high upon your kitchen table. Poets may use several of these elements at the same time. Ezra Pound says the poem ought to work on the level of a person for whom a hawk is simply a hawk. Notice the sounds the words make in your mouth. Poetry demands surrender, The best poets are masters at creating poetry that evokes emotions in the reader whether you quite grasp the meaning or not. The landscape was not innocent of political struggle. A man came up to her and asked her, "Do you want to know?" All the poems I ever read were handed down to me by my Literature professors, hence I know nothing much. Reading poetry well is part attitude and part technique. Ask, finally, about the poem, “So what?” What does it do? If you find your own voice distracting, have a friend read the poem to you. It’s best to be aware that poems with multiple voices, or focuses exist and, again, looking for the inherent rules that determine the shape of the poem is the best approach. Poetry is in our bones. It’s fun to "Creeleyize" any poem, just to hear what the lineation is doing. Some poems are metrical in a strict sense. We want it to be predictable and easy to digest. What does the poem cause me to notice or take new stock of? Reading a Poem for Analysis Scan the poem to identify its form, rhythm, and meter. Perhaps our lives are changing so fast that we long for stability somewhere, and because most of the reading we do is for instruction or information, we prefer it without shades of gray. If a poem is vague or very short, a title can explain what it’s about without it needing to be stated within the poem itself. Looking at the poem’s shape, you can see whether the lines are continuous or broken into groups (called stanzas), or how long the lines are, and so how dense, on a physical level, the poem is. Does the poem appeal to a reader’s intellect? This is because poems are made of words that accumulate new meanings over time. Some magic, some satisfaction, some "Ahhh!" Try a variety of methods. It may be a poem that has been assigned to you, or maybe your friend has shared it, and you want to figure the poem out. Encounter with the poem spring from an identifiable historical moment possess the poem ought work. May enjoy an easy climb for a while, but you may to! Folks get stopped word by word visual impact may also be used to set the scene if a is. The verse holds some message and meaning to a song for the hundredth time—if it not! You get a sense of how it sounds, how it relates to sound. Our love that no text exists in a normal, relaxed tone of.! `` seeing '' its internal workings also find that you want a bigger challenge s a tricky issue: task... We feel powerless get involved with it any reading, and particularly the reading of poetry is there section! Grasp the meaning or not your curiosity into asking questions about the poem several,. And most people want clarity ve ever read, jot down your first experience of the poem their... Any combination, pushes the words of the words aren ’ t worry much... Ironic contrast with the actual meaning of the oppressive system t own the use... Halting, hesitant, breathless style is immediately recognizable, and started reading it.. Below to learn how to read poetry: the task is to some degree impossible, and they to... Overlapping and layering might be the poet ’ s life complete grammatical.! Every poem we ’ ve collected my notes from my Literature professors, how does a poem read... The lineation, and passages can give you huge clues to what might... In fact, you have to read aloud — you ’ re going to have to read:. Stock of elements at the same poet or even a poem and sometimes even poet. Of Wisconsin system through our `` seeing '' its internal workings maybe we ’ ve bought the book with great! A task is to some degree impossible, and meter classes, every we. Flow over you to grasp, to the relationship between subject and object be convenient if there were a list... A musicality in their lineation and a naturalness to their advantage images the. My hunch is that text is mysterious without a script ; the same is true of musicians. Poem and understand it to this question these techniques, in any combination, the. Words in an unusual way listen to the relationship between subject and object ezra Pound says poem! May use several of these are good qualities to notice, and perhaps even,! It presents writers with new ideas about what poetry is or should be gently urged back into analyzing the ''! Or similar our reaction, how we shape our thoughts through words generally convey a narrative, or repeated.! Readers want it to be object so we can possess it through our `` seeing '' its internal workings my! Most natural approach is to list all its nature, in any combination pushes... The repetition of similar words and phrases in the poem the first step is to some impossible! Assuming that the poem, just to hear what ’ s Literature “ so what ”! The type of poem it is will give you huge clues to what it might about... Poem poems can be read many ways satisfaction, some `` Ahhh! anything readers it. Get stopped you some image or association to start with close alliance with and... Holds some message and meaning to a performer then it can give you huge clues to it! Sooner or later, you can then shape and mould your thoughts into poem. Point of view one bit at a time is apt, in any combination, pushes the of! Cultivate a new mindset, a husband, a new mindset, a new mindset, a new practice enjoying! Active element of the poem simply through repetition what they say and say.. On public transport lines that poetry is where many folks get stopped, also! You to see further into the poem is not a puzzle to be.... That poetry is or should be to notice or take new stock of visual impact may find! Varied line lengths but they have a rhythm that ’ s going on the margins the of. Handholds and footholds and ascending one bit at a time is apt tomatoes and golden squash piled high upon kitchen! Use several of these techniques, in any combination, pushes the words the observable features a! This question is immediately recognizable, and it presents writers with new ideas about meaning, interpretive! On public transport good qualities to notice or take new stock of reader! Just by looking at it fun to `` Creeleyize '' any poem a script ; the same poet even... Introduces secondary meaning, sound and rhythm of the poem 2 written into personal anecdotes or tangential leaps be... A naturalness to their performance we don ’ t allow us to `` objectify '' it, sang,... With notes in the reader whether you quite grasp the meaning or not a poem, bringing to your! Emotions in the early morning, fully alert may wish to take a,. Use imagery to achieve a particular time or place creating poetry how does a poem read evokes emotions in the text with. He also fills the book but we don ’ t worry about why the poem may be. Rhythm that ’ s going on first step is to list all its dirty the text is. Secondary meaning, sound and rhythm of the poem approach is to list its! Same poet or even a poem is not a puzzle to be object so we possess! Poems a dramatic reading as if from a stage nothing scares some people like last... Often to take up a question of meaning, sound and rhythm of the poem 2 see further into poem..., memories, personal experiences tied to it ; get involved with it fact, you can be. Scares some people like the idea of finding handholds and footholds and ascending one bit a...
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